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学科主题: 环境科学与工程::环境经济与环境管理
题名: 城市居住空间形态变迁及其通勤效应研究——以住房市场化背景下的厦门为例
作者: 张国钦
答辩日期: 2011-04-28
导师: 赵千钧 ; 郭青海
专业: 环境经济与环境管理
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
学位: 博士
关键词: 住房制度改革 ; 居住空间 ; 物质形态 ; 社会形态 ; 通勤效应
摘要:

    改革开放以后,中国的城市化呈现出加速发展的趋势,在这个过程中城市的内部空间发生重构,其中居住空间在住房制度的市场化改革中发生了深刻变化。居住空间的变迁导致了居住分异、职住分离及其引发的交通拥堵等城市问题,影响到城市的可持续发展。目前对中国转型期住房制度市场化背景下的城市居住空间变迁过程以及由此引发的通勤问题已经有一定的研究,但是这些研究主要针对个别大城市,并且对整个变迁的过程及其通勤效应尚缺乏全面系统的分析。因此,本研究在对城市住房制度市场化改革回顾的基础上,以沿海经济特区厦门作为典型案例,结合宏观的历史资料、空间数据和社会经济数据以及微观的社会个体调查数据,对居住空间的物质形态和社会形态变迁进行了系统的分析与研究,并探讨了住房制度市场化改革背景下居住空间形态变迁对城市通勤的影响。

    厦门市的住房制度改革整体上略滞后于全国的住房制度改革进程。根据资料分析,可以划分为筹划准备、初步实施、继续深化、全面改革和住房保障等五个阶段。与之相应的,城市居住空间的物质形态和社会形态都发生了深刻变化。在住房制度改革的影响下,厦门岛的城市居住空间在宏观上表现为在城市规划的约束下逐步向东向北的外延扩展,并在优势区位地段进行内涵填充;同时,随着城市化和工业化的持续推进,各种类型的城中村等特殊居住空间开始形成,成为厦门城市居住空间的重要组成部分。在微观上,典型住区及其格局定量分析表明,居住空间的变迁表现为总体开发规模的缩小和单个住区形态的多样化和高层化,总量指标总体上表现为递减的趋势,平均指标随着年代的推进大小变化较为平稳,而多样性指标随着年代总体上表现为上升的趋势。在住房制度改革的过程中,城市居民的总量与结构、收入与分层以及居住状况均发生了明显分化。结合住房制度改革过程和物质形态的变迁,可以将厦门岛28个调查居住区分为规划型住区和自发型住区,其中规划型住区又包括三类,分别代表住房制度改革不同阶段的住区形态;自发型住区既包括了改革开放之前自发形成的老城区,也包括改革开放之后逐步形成的城中村。对这些不同类型住区的社会形态进行分析,发现规划型住区与自发型住区以及两类住区内部的社会形态均存在显著差异,反映了住房制度改革对居住空间社会形态的影响。进一步通过因子分析发现,居住空间的社会形态主要受到居住因子”“阶层因子”“成熟因子等因素的影响,其中“居住”与“阶层”是两个最主要因子,反映了住房制度改革对居住空间社会形态变迁的影响。

    对厦门出行调查的分析表明,住房制度改革前后出行方式和出行时耗均发生了变化,其中出行方式表现为机动化率的提高,公共交通出行的比例大幅增加,私家车出行比例增加到原来的十倍;与此同时,2009年调查的机动化方式的出行时耗却比住房制度改革之前的1995年明显增加了,特别是考虑到2009年的出行调查包括了岛外的样本,机动化率和出行时耗在厦门岛的增加就更为明显,在机动化率提高的同时出行时耗增加,一方面是机动化本身所带来的拥挤效应,另一方面也反映了城市空间的重构导致出行距离的增加。进一步分析代表居住空间物质形态和社会形态变迁典型变量的通勤特征,结果表明不同的住区类型、住房产权、收入水平和居住类型的通勤存在明显差异:从不同住区类型来看,随着住区形态的变迁机动化、高能耗的出行方式以及平均通勤时间和通勤距离表现为增加的趋势;住房产权的通勤特征表现为购房与租房、商品房与公房、非自建房与自建房的区别,机动化率、高能耗通勤率、平均通勤时间和平均通勤距离前者都明显高于后者,充分说明了住房制度改革后住区社会形态的变迁对通勤所产生的深刻影响;从收入水平来看,中等收入群体与其他收入群体相比机动化率相对较高,但是高能耗通勤率相对较低,平均通勤时间和平均通勤距离最长,反映了在住房制度市场化改革的影响下不同收入群体对居住质量、居住成本和通勤成本的综合平衡;与本地居民相比,外地居民的通勤表现为非机动化、短时间、短距离的特征,反映了其中大部分人作为外来居民的弱势地位。 

 

英文摘要:

After reform and opening up, China’s urbanization shows an accelerating trend and the internal urban space is being reconstructed. In this course, the residential space is experiencing profound changes under the background of housing system marketization reform. Changes in residential space led to some urban problems such as the residential spatial differentiation, job-housing separation and traffic congestion, which affect the sustainable development of cities. There has been some research on the process of urban residential space changes and the consequent effect on commuting, but these studies focused on some big cities, and the whole process of residential space change and its effects on commuting are still lack of comprehensive and systematic analysis. Therefore, this dissertation firstly reviews the housing system reform and takes the coastal Special Economic Zone Xiamen as the typical case, combined with macro-historical materials, spatial and socio-economic data and micro-social individual survey data to study the process of physical and social pattern change of residential space and its effect on urban commuting.

 Housing system reform in Xiamen had minor lags behind the overall national process. According to the publication time of some landmark policy paper, the housing system reform in Xiamen can be divided into five stages: planning and preparation, initial implementation, continually deepening, comprehensive reform and housing security. Correspondingly, the physical form and social patterns of urban residential space have undergone profound changes. At the macro scale, the urban residential space gradually extended toward the north and east of Xiamen Island under the constraint of urban planning and filled the advantageous location. At the same time, with urbanization and industrialization, the special residential space of village-in-city began to form and became important part of urban residential space in Xiamen. At the micro scale, typical residential community and quantitative analysis shows that the total, average and diversity landscape indicators have the decreasing, stable and increasing trends respectively, which implies the decrease in development size and the internal morphology diversification of individual residential community pattern.

In the process of housing system reform, urban residents have differentiated in total amount, structure, income stratification and housing condition. Considering the housing system reform course and changes of residential physical pattern, 28 residential communities surveyed in Xiamen Island can be classified into planned residential communities and spontaneous residential communities. The planned residential communities can be classified into three types which represent different form in different stage of housing system reform. The spontaneous communities include the old downtown formed spontaneously before reform and opening up and the village-in-city gradually formed after reform and opening up. Analysis on the social pattern of these different types of communities reveals the significant difference between planned communities and spontaneous communities and among the three types of these two kinds of communities respectively, which reflects the effect of housing system reform on the social pattern of residential space. The further factor analysis finds that social pattern of residential space mainly affected by the housing factor, class factor, maturity factor and so on and the the housing and class factors are the most important, which reflects the effect of housing system reform on the social pattern of residential space.

According to the travel survey data, the travel modes and time consumption has changed. Motorization rate and proportion of public transport has increased significantly. Proportion of travel by car in 2009 is ten times of that in 1995. Meanwhile, travel time consumption of the motorized mode in 2009 is more than in 1995 before the housing system reform started in 1998. Considering that the travel survey in 2009 included a sample outsides the island, motorization rate and travel time consumption insides the island should increased more significantly. That travel time consumption increased with the promotion of motorization can be attributed to not only the congestion due to motorization itself but also the increase in travel distance due to the urban space reconstruction.

Further analysis on the commuting characteristics of typical variables representing the physical form and social pattern changes of urban residential space showed that: (1)for different types of residential communities, the motorization rate, high energy commuter rate, average commuting time and average  commuting distance have the increasing trend with the change of residential physical form and social pattern; (2) for different kinds of housing properties, the difference mainly existed between house bought and house rented, between commercial house and public house and between house self-built and house non-self-built, that is the motorization rate, high energy commuter rate, average commuting time and average  commuting distance of the former are more than the latter, which reflects the impact of housing system reform on the urban residential space and commuting behavior; (3) for different income levels, compared with other income groups, the middle-income group has a higher motorization rate, but the proportion of high energy commuter rate is the highest and the average commuting time and average commuting distance are the longest, which reflects different income groups’ comprehensive balance among housing quality, housing cost and commuting cost under the influence of housing system reform; (4) compared with the local residents, foreign residents’ commuting has characteristics of non-motorization, short travel time and short travel distance, which reflects their weak position.

语种: 中文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://124.16.167.195/handle/335003/1107
Appears in Collections:城市地理与区域规划研究组_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张国钦.城市居住空间形态变迁及其通勤效应研究——以住房市场化背景下的厦门为例[博士].北京.中国科学院研究生院.2011
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